HA

The Lateral Meniscus

The Lateral Meniscus



The Lateral Meniscus (meniscus lateralis; external semilunar fibrocartilage) is nearly circular and covers a larger portion of the articular surface than the medial one.The menisci (medial and lateral) are crescent-shaped bands of thick cartilage attached to the tibia. They act as shock absorbers and stabilize the knee. The medial meniscus is on the inner side of the knee joint. The lateral meniscus is on the outside of the knee.


ACL Injury

An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is extreme stretching or slight to severe tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament in the knee. The ACL is located in the middle of the knee. It prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur, and it provides rotational stability to the knee. Proper ACL diagnosis involves the use of an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). If left untreated, a torn ACL can lead to damaged ligaments or cartilage. When engaged in physical activity, an untreated ACL will not give the affected knee proper stability, and may cause the knee to “give out”.


Causes

* A hard contact to the side of the knee.

* Sudden stops, combined with directional change.

* Any type of stressful pivoting.



Symptoms

* A “popping” sound.

* Swelling of the knee

* Severe pain



First Aid Treatment

* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

* Ice

* Splint/Brace/ Wrap

* Elevation


LCL Injury

A lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury is a stretch, partial tear, or complete tear of the ligament on the outside of the knee. The LCL extends from the top, outside surface of the fibula to the bottom, outside surface of the femur. The LCL keeps the knee stable from outside the knee joint. Proper ACL diagnosis involves the use of an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of X-ray and a LCL test. A LCL test is designed to test the knee’s stability. It involves bending the knee to a 25 degree angle and placing pressure on the inside surface of the knee.



Causes

* Pressure placed on the knee joint from the inside.



Symptoms

* Knee instability

* Swelling of the knee

* Severe pain



First Aid Treatment

* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

* Ice

* Splint

* Elevation


MCL Injury

A medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury is a stretch, partial tear, or complete tear of the ligament on the inside of the knee. The MCL extends from the upper-inside surface of the shinbone to the bottom-inside surface of the thighbone. The ligament stabilizes the joint on the inside of the knee. It is often injured at the same time as an ACL. Proper MCL diagnosis involves the use of an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or X-Ray and a MCL test. A MCL test can test the knees stability. It is performed by bending the knee to a 25-degree angle while applying outside pressure.



Causes

* Pressure placed on the knee joint from the outside.



Symptoms

* Knee instability

* Swelling of the knee

* Pain



First Aid Treatment

* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

* Ice

* Knee brace

* Elevation


PCL Injury

A posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury is a partial or complete tearing or stretching of any part of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The PCL extends from the top-rear surface of the tibia to the bottom-front surface of the femur. It prevents the knee joint from posterior instability. Proper PCL diagnosis involves a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and a physical examination, involving several knee manipulation techniques. If left untreated, a torn PCL can lead to damaged ligaments or cartilage.



Causes

* Knee hyperextension

* Direct blow to a flexed knee



Symptoms

* Joint instability

* Swelling of the knee

* Pain



First Aid Treatment

* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

* Ice

* Splint

* Elevation